Six Sigma Terminology

Frequently Asked Questions On Six Sigma Methodology

Six Sigma (6σ) is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. This data-driven and disciplined methodology can be used in any processes from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service. It was first introduced by Bill Smith while he was working in Motorola in 1986 and over the years it has gained popularity in different industries and sectors for business improvement.

Six Sigma Levels, Six Sigma Questions, Six sigma Techniques, Six Sigma Terminology

There are a lot of advantages in using Six Sigma and its positive effects have been the driving force in the effective functioning of many businesses. This is the reason why Six Sigma professionals are still in great demand in various industries.

Six Sigma Terminology - R to T

Random Sample

A simple random sample is a subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. An example of a simple random sample would be the names of 25 employees being chosen out of a hat from a company of 250 employees.

Root Cause Analysis

Root Cause Analysis is a process or procedure that helps guide people to discover and understand the initiating causes of a problem, with the goal of determining missing or inadequately applied controls that will prevent recurrence.


The ability of an apparatus, machine, or system to consistently perform its intended or required function or mission, on demand and without degradation or failure.

Six Sigma Terminology - D to F

Defining terminology and solving doubts on them is a vital part you do as a six sigma expert. Terminologies are descriptive in nature and should be understood before moving ahead in studies.


Data are factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation; often this term refers to quantitative information. It is plural in form. The singular is “datum.”


Any undesired result is a defect.

A failure to meet one of the acceptance criteria of your customers. A defective unit may have one or more defects. ‘A defect is an inability to conform to requirements’ (Crosby, ‘Quality Is Free’), whether or not those requirements have been articulated or specified.


The word defective describes an entire unit that fails to meet acceptance criteria, regardless of the number of defects within the unit. A unit may be defective because of one or more defects.

Six Sigma Terminology - 03 to 08

There are many terminologies used within six sigma. With this brief description of six sigma terms, you will be able to differentiate between the terminologies. While there are so many to list, here are details on few of them from 03 to 08


The three Ps stand for People, Product, and Process. When implementing TQM, all three parameters should be improved.

  1. People - the satisfaction of both internal and external customers.
  2. Product - conforming to the requirements specified.
  3. Process - continuous improvement of all the operations and activities is at the heart of TQM.


The 5C is a very similar technique to the 5S that is used to stabilize and improve the best and safest work environment, to support a sustainable cost, quality, and delivery.

Six Sigma Terminology - A to C

Before starting six sigma journey, you should take the time to review terms of six sigma for the better understanding of its tools and techniques.

six sigma terms


Conditional personal or professional liability “after” the fact, determined by action or responsibility. Accountability to action assumes the willingness to be held accountable for sufficient expertise and capability. (see responsibility)


  1. Accuracy refers to a clustering of data about an obvious target. It is the difference between a physical quantity’s average measurements and that of a known standard, accepted ‘truth,’ vs. ‘benchmark.’ Envision a target with many arrows circling the bullseye. However, none of them are near each other.

  2. Precision refers to the tightness of the cluster of data. Envision a target with a cluster of arrows all touching one another but located slightly up and to the right of the bullseye.

Six Sigma - Terminology

Six Sigma is a strategy that teaches employers how to manage their organizations. The approach was originally adopted and developed by Motorola during the 1980’s and is now used by many organizations worldwide. Often, Six Sigma terminology can be tough for people who are newly introduced to the concept to comprehend.We have six sigma terms available in this article for the benefits of readers of These Six Sigma terminologies are intended for the additional support while reading six sigma tutorials and blogs. 

Terminology of six sigma

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