Six Sigma - Introduction

What is Quality?

Quality is a result of the continual fight to overcome our threats. The degree to which a set of characteristics fulfills requirements. Quality is never achieved by an accident. It is always the result of creative efforts.

Six Sigma Quality Assurance

Why Do We Need Quality?

  • Customer Quality expectations are higher always

  • Cost of poor quality

  • Quality is a competitive issue

  • Quality is must for survival

  • Quality is cost effective

What is Six Sigma?

Six Sigma is known as a quality improvement tool. Six Sigma is usually related to the magic number of 3.4 defects per million opportunities. Six Sigma is born at Motorola in the early 1980s, in response to achieving Systematic, Scientific, Statistical,  Smarter. Six Sigma is known as a quality improvement tool to solve all kinds of difficult problems. Six Sigma attempts to visualize the cause of the problem.  Six Sigma are extremely useful in manufacturing organizations

Why is Six Sigma called Six Sigma? Why not Four or Five Sigma or Eight Alpha or with another Greek symbol? Symbol “σ” Sigma is a statistical term that measures process deviation from the process mean or target. The way is referred to as average.The image of six was arrived statistically by looking at the current average maturity of most business enterprises. Six Sigma methodologies help to improve any aspect of the organization in following areas:

  • Customer Satisfaction

  • Internal Business Process

  • People Development

The Goal of Six Sigma quality is to cut production process deviation so that on a long term basis. Which is the customer’s collective practice with our practice over time, this will effect in no more than 3.4 error in parts per million (PPM) opportunities (or 3.4 defects per million opportunities – DPMO). For a procedure with only one requirement boundary (upper or lower), this results in six process standard deviations between the mean of the process and the customer’s requirement boundary (hence, Six Sigma). For a process with two design bounds (upper and lower), this translates to somewhat more than six process standard deviations amid the mean and each specification limit such that the total defect rate agrees to correspond of six process standard deviations.

Key Concepts of Six Sigma:

  • Critical to Quality: Attributes most important to the client.

  • Defect: Failing to deliver what the customer wants.

  • Process Capability: What your process can deliver.

  • Variation: What the customer sees and feels.

  • Stable Operations: Ensuring consistent, predictable processes to improve what the customer sees and feels.

  • Design for Six Sigma: Designing to meet customer needs and process capability.

Key benefits that attract organizations by Six Sigma:

  • Create continuous success

  • Sets a performance goal for everyone

  • Enhances Quality to customers

  • Accelerates the rate of improvement

  • Promotes learning and cross-pollination

  • Executes strategic change

  • Reduces Defect per unit

  • Statistical approach to problem-solving

Goals of Six Sigma:

  • Reduce errors in any process to less than 3.4 defects per million operations.

  • Eliminate wasteful practices.

  • Delight internal and external Customer.

  • The ultimate goal is to increase return on investment for the Business.

The Role of Six Sigma:

  • Reducing cost of production and increase profits

  • Utilizing the talent and creativity of the employees

  • Promotes cross-functional approach in the Organization

  • Makes result oriented work environment

Essential Tools: 

  1. Line Graph: Use to measure Customer Requirement

  2. Pareto Chart: Focuses on the cause analysis

  3. Cause-effect Diagram: Use to analyze the reasons of the problem/symptoms